Wind energy in Russia: state, trends, prospects

Page 1
background image

The MAIN JOURNAL for POWER GRID SPECIALISTS in RUSSIA


Page 2
background image

16

4–7 September, 2013, Jakarta, Indonesia

Wind energy in Russia: state, 

trends, prospects

By Ekaterina MIROLIUBOVA (

Екатерина

 

МИРОЛЮБОВА

),

 senior analyst, RBC.research, RBC Consulting Department;

Marina KARNAUKHOVA (

Марина

 

КАРНАУХОВА

), RBC.research analyst

R

ussia from the standpoint of wind energy poten-
tial is one of the richest countries in the world 
due to its vast territory favorable for siting 
wind farms (the longest coastline, abundance 

in forestless 

fl

 atlands, large water areas).

Wind energy potential of Russia is estimated at 

6516.6 billion KWh/year, economic potential amounts to 
260 billion KWh/year corresponding to one quarter of the 
country’s power generating capacity. 

In experts’ opinion, wind power capacities of Russia 

are huge and not used today only because of the lack of 
certainty in regulatory legislation and speci

fi

 c mechanisms 

to encourage the development of the industry. The greatest 
potential has the Far East region (about 30%), Siberia 
(16%), the Far North (14%), and the Altai, Lower and 
mid-Volga regions, the Caspian coast and the Republic of 
Karelia as well (25% in total). 

It is possible to highlight some signi

fi

 cant trends in 

Russia’s wind-power engineering market:
•  increasing demand for small wind plants;
•  widening the range of applicability of wind generation 

in regions with low wind rates by using rotary wind 
turbines;

•  application of solar-wind hybrid power plants;
•  replacement of diesel-run power plant with small-wind 

power plants. 
Now small-sized windmills 0.1—0.5 kW are often used 

to replace high-cost and  environment-unfriendly diesel-
run power plants. Bene

fi

 ts of these plants the advantages 

of such plants are their relatively low cost and the ability to 
work of

fl

 ine providing power to speci

fi

 c objects (capacity 

corresponds to the demand of the connected object, so 
excess power to be supplied to the network practically is 
not generated).

In regions with insuf

fi

 cient annual average wind speed 

wind turbines with a horizontal axis of rotation are practi-
cally not applicable — their start-up speed is 3—6 m/s, so 
they do not produce a signi

fi

 cant amount of power. Howe-

ver, today more and more windmills manufacturers offer 
so called rotary wind turbines or vertical wind turbines. 
Vertical turbine is featured by its start-up wind speed 
which is about 1 m/s. Further research in this area would 
remove all restrictions on use of wind energy to produce 
power supply. 

The most advanced technology is a hybrid, combining 

in one set two modules, vertical wind generator and PHVM 
(photovoltaic modules)-solar panels. 

Complementing each other, they guarantee production 

of suf

fi

 cient quantities of electricity on all territories and in 

any climate conditions. For example, suf

fi

 cient to power 

street lightning or engineering infrastructure objects (mo-
bile communication base stations, monitoring, weather sta-
tions and so on). Also growing in popularity among con-
sumers are 3-in-1 units, in which the wind turbine and solar 
module are complemented by a LED Panel. Besides solar 
panels hybrid installations could use other renewables.

Today hybrid stations on the base of wind turbines 

are successfully used in remote areas of the Kaliningrad 
region (JSC Yantarenergo), JSC “Bashkirenergo” and JSC 
“Rostovenergo” and Kamchatka where thermal stations 
using heat of the Earth are also successfully utilized. 

SCOPE AND MARKET DYNAMICS

According to the World Wind Energy Association 

(WWEA) report, installed wind capacity of Russia in 
2011 was estimated at 15.4 MW. Other reports say that 
the power of operational wind turbines in our country 
even lower and is approximately 5—6 MW. As Table 1 
shows Russia lags signi

fi

 cantly behind FSU countries 

such as Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Latvia (whose 
installed capacity in 2011, was 184, 179, 151.1 and 
31 MW respectively) in installed capacity and wind power 
growth rates. Kazakhstan actively developed its wind 
power engineering in 2011 by installing new wind power 
stations with an aggregate capacity of 1.5 MW in this way 
reaching the growth rate to up 300% in 2010—2011.

According to the WWEA report, Russia in 2011 in 

comparison with 2010 added only 1.4 MW of aggregate 
installed capacity; but taking into account the fact that in 
2010 and 2011 installed capacities were the same, one can 
make conclusion that during the discussed period part of 
wind turbines was outcommissioned.

Wind power share in renewable energy is almost 

negligible and in 2010 it amounted up to 0.07% (Table 2).

Meanwhile, in order to achieve 4.5% target indicator of 

gross electricity produced and consumed in Russia to come 
from renewable sources by 2020 it is necessary that wind 
turbines generate capacity amounting to 11.6 billion kWh.

Analytics


Page 3
background image

17

info@eepr.ru,   www.eepr.ru

World rating 

in 2011

Country

2011

Power of windmills 

installed in 2011, MW

Growth 

rate, %

2010

2009

2008

2007

36

Estonia

184

35

23.5

149

142.3

78.3

58.6

37

Lithuania

179

16

9.8

163

91

54.4

52.3

38

Ukraine

151.1

66.1

73

87.4

90

90

89

56

Latvia

31

1

3.3

30

28.5

26.9

27.4

62

Russia

15.4

1.4

9.1

15.4

14

16.5

16.5

73

Belarus

3.5

1.6

0

1.9

1.9

1.1

1.1

76

Armenia

2.6

0

0

2.6

2.6

0

0

80

Kazakhstan

2.2

1.5

300

0.7

0.5

0.5

0.5

81

Azerbaijan

2.2

0

0

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

Source: WWEA

Table 1. Wind power aggregate installed capacity dynamics in Russia and FSU

 countries in 2007—2011, MW

Modernization Program of United National Power Grid 

of Russia for the period up to 2020 foresees rapid develop-
ment of wind energy. The 

fi

 rst phase of the Program (up 

to 2016) wind energy share in the renewable gross energy 
production should amount to 19%. This phase foresees 
commissioning of 185 MW wind farm “Lower Volga”, 
50 MW Vorkuta wind stations and 338 MW Krasnodar 

wind mills. The second phase of the Program is planned 
for 2016—2020 years. During this period wind generation 
should strengthen its position in the overall electricity pro-
duction structure and its share should increase to 34%. The 
second phase also includes construction of 150 MW wind 
plant Kalmytskaya and a number of windmills in the Kras-
nodar Krai with a capacity of 500 MW. 


Page 4
background image

18

4–7 September, 2013, Jakarta, Indonesia

Year

Grid power 

capacity in Russia 

Renewable energy 

capacity

Wind power 

capacity 

The share of wind power in electricity 

generation based on renewable energy, %

2000

877 800

4550.7

2.917

0.06

2001

891 300

4788.2

4.12

0.09

2002

891 300

5021.7

6.645

0.13

2003

916 300

5362.7

8.832

0.16

2004

931 900

5982.1

14.075

0.24

2005

953 100

5892.2

9.63

0.16

2006

931 381

5929.4

8.383

0.14

2007

1 008 256

6027.5

6.623

0.11

2008

1 040 400

6460.2

5.235

0.08

2009

990 000

6750.9

3.942

0.06

2010

1 025 394

6320.1

4.186

0.07

Source: Institute of Energy Strategy

Table 2. 2000—2010 Russia renewable energy capacity, million kWh 

MAJOR OBSTACLES TO THE 

DEVELOPMENT OF WIND GENERATION 

MARKET IN RUSSIA

In spite of the obvious appeal of wind power develop-

ment in Russia due to its huge potential, this process is 
going very slowly for a number of constraints.

Historic commitments to large power generation facili-

ties (CHP, nuclear, hydro) now de

fi

 ne the indifference to 

wind power in the Russian Federation. 

One of the paramount challenges of the wind power 

industry, as well as other sectors of the Russian alterna-
tive energy, is the absence of thorough legal framework. 
For example, “Technical operation rules for power plants 
and networks” does not include even a notion of a wind 
generation. The industry requires regulations and standards 
that will ensure the safe operation of generating capacities. 
The issue of technological connection of wind generation 
to electricity networks is still unsolved; there is no cost-re-
covery mechanism for up to 25 MW generators connection. 

Meanwhile this organizational barrier is related to the 

objective lack of technology.

Wind station generation depends on the strength of 

wind, a factor featured by signi

fi

 cant intermittency. Ac-

cordingly, wind station electricity supply to the grid is er-
ratic both on a daily, weekly, and monthly and annual ba-
sis.  Given that the power system load is not uniform (peak 
and off-peak periods that cannot be regulated by the wind 
generation), addition of large-scale wind generation to the 
power system contributes to its destabilization. Thus wind 
generation requires a good backstop in the power system 
(e.g. gas turbine plants) and mechanism to smooth their in-
termittent generation (HPP or PSPP). This feature greatly 
increases the cost of electricity produced by wind stations. 
Grid and power system dispatch problems due to intermit-
tent wind generation begin when wind generation share in 
the power system installed capacity reaches 20—25%. For 
Russia this 

fi

 gure is close to 50000—55000 MW. Because 

of the fact that power systems are not eager to connect 

wind generation to the grid a number of foreign govern-
ments issued legislative act obliging them to do it. 

Wind farm ef

fi

 ciency is certainly less than coal or gas 

power plants. Despite this, in Germany, for example, the 
installed capacity of all wind turbines can be compared 
with the installed capacity of all the plants of the concern 
«Rosenergoatom».

Along with almost complete absence of government 

support for wind generation, Russia continues to subsidize 
unpromising projects, e.g. thermal power generation.

One more problem — wind generation age that in some 

sites exceeds 20 years. A great part of the equipment was 
imported from abroad in the late 1990's and early 2000's, 
after having been in operation for 5—10 years. The re-
placement of the equipment, obsolete physically and mor-
ally requires considerable investment.

Foreign experience showed that the most valid driver 

to increase wind turbine demand is to introduce compen-
satory tariff. According to estimates by Russian Associa-
tion of Wind Power Industry for EBRD and Market Coun-
cil, the amount of the allowance to the market price of 
wind turbine energy should be between 1.59 to 2.07 rub. 
(5—6.3 cent) for 1 kWh. If this allowance still be intro-
duced in the near future, industry players will be possible 
to carry out the plan of the Government for installation to 
2020, 7 GW of wind energy capacity.

However, according to some experts, Russia has a pow-

erful oil lobby, opposed to the incentive tariff allowances 
that would have made the construction of wind turbines 
cheaper than coal or gas-

fi

 red plants. Meanwhile the cost 

of wind power is too high to compete with conventional 
electricity network and ranges from 4 to 10 rubles (12—
30 cent) for 1 kWh. The process of raising tariffs for elec-
tricity network to this level can take several years. 

Obviously, that in the case of mass application the wind 

power will become a powerful center of development not 
only of the domestic electrical engineering but also the 
whole R&D complex.

Analytics


Читать онлайн

Russia from the standpoint of wind energy potential is one of the richest countries in the world due to its vast territory favorable for siting wind farms (the longest coastline, abundance in forestless flatlands, large water areas).

Поделиться:

«ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГИЯ. Передача и распределение» № 6(69), ноябрь-декабрь 2021

Применение систем накопления электроэнергии для повышения коэффициента использования установленной мощности электростанций на базе возобновляемых источников энергии в составе электрических систем

Возобновляемая энергетика / Накопители
Булатов Р.В. Насыров Р.Р. Бурмейстер М.В.
«ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГИЯ. Передача и распределение» № 6(69), ноябрь-декабрь 2021

Нормативные проблемы разработки схем выдачи мощности электростанций на базе возобновляемых источников энергии

Возобновляемая энергетика / Накопители Учет электроэнергии / Тарифообразование / Качество электроэнергии
Дворкин Д.В. Антонов А.А. Кошкин И.Ю.
«ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГИЯ. Передача и распределение» № 6(69), ноябрь-декабрь 2021

Координированное управление напряжением и реактивной мощностью в сетях с ветроэнергетическими станциями

Управление сетями / Развитие сетей Возобновляемая энергетика / Накопители
Закутский В.И. Гаджиев М.Г.
«ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГИЯ. Передача и распределение» № 5(68), сентябрь-октябрь 2021

Использование сегментированной статической характеристики по частоте для поддержания уровня заряда системы накопления электроэнергии

Возобновляемая энергетика / Накопители
Илюшин П.В. Шавловский С.В
«ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГИЯ. Передача и распределение»