Solving Tasks of Preventing and Reducing LLC “Gazprom Energo” Power Equipment Malfunctions

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August 25–29, France, Paris

Solving Tasks of Preventing 

and Reducing LLC “Gazprom 

Energo” Power Equipment 


Sergey ASOSKOV (




), Chief Engineer,

First Deputy Director General,

Vladislav KRUPOVICH (




), Advisor to Director General,

Interim Deputy Director General for Automation,

Alexander TSAPENKO (




), Engineer,

Industrial Engineering Division of Technical Department, LLC “Gazprom Energo”


ithin the framework of implementation 
of JSC “Gazprom” energy strategy, LLC 
“Gazprom Energo” was assigned the role 
of a uni


 ed power grid company. LLC 

“Gazprom Energo” renders a full range of services on 
power supply of JSC “Gazprom” subsidiaries, as well as 
outside consumers by efforts of 11 branches in 42 subjects 
of RF.

One of the basic kinds of activities of LLC “Gazprom 

Energo” is creation and use of data bases and information 
resources of automated systems, development and 
implementation of energy saving projects. At present, 
LLC “Gazprom Energo” works on integrating energy 
saving systems that are an integral part of LLC “Gazprom 
Energo” general policy in the 


 eld of energy saving.

Energy saving is a constituent of the problem of 

ensuring energy security, which is characterized by three 
main factors:
•   ability of the energy sector to meet the demand with an 

adequate quantity of proper-quality energy resources 
(electric power quality);

•   ability of the energy sector to ef


 ciently use energy 

resources (energy saving, energy ef



•   ability of the energy sector to ensure sustainability to 

man-made and natural threats, minimize the damage 
caused by these threats.
IT-aspect of ensuring energy security must be a part 

of preventive measures, main purposes of which are the 

•   to obtain precise and timely information on a wide 

geographical scale;

•  to ensure preemptive reporting on emergencies, 

destructive impacts on energy systems, including 
electromagnetic terrorist acts;

•   to prevent sustainability losses and emergency outages 

of energy systems on the basis of energy system 
dynamic behavior forecasting.
These objectives can be accomplished by deployment 

in LLC “Gazprom Energo” energy system of an automated 
energy quality data measuring system (AEQDMS).

The goals of AEQDMS are:


 measuring energy ef



ciency indicators (SAIDI, 

SAIFI, MAIFI) and reliability level of energy system 

•   measuring electric power quality indicators (GOST 

13109-97, GOST R 51317.4.30-2008);

•   identifying power equipment by current and voltage 

harmonics, diagnostics and remaining life estimation;

•   searching for a source of disturbances in the energy 

AEQDMS initially aims at solving tasks of energy 

equipment condition-based diagnostics, remaining life 
estimation and search for a source of disturbances and at 
the same time processes and displays information based on 
electric power quality requirements and energy ef



indicators. This fully meets requirements of Federal Law 



 “On the public information system of the fuel 

and energy sector” of 03.12.2011, Article 10 “Kinds of 

Real Time Monitoring

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External power supply inter-


Unsatisfactory technical 

condition of power equip-


Outside impacts

Erroneous or improper 

actions of third-party 

organization’s personnel

Erroneous or improper 

actions of maintenance 

personnel of the 


information subject to inclusion in the public information 
system of the fuel and energy sector (FES): information on 
characteristics of energy resources, including that of their 
quality (p.7); information in the 


 eld of energy saving and 

energy ef


 ciency improvement (p.15); information on 

man-made and natural emergencies, incidents or accidents 
posing threats to security at FES facilities (p.20)”, which 
came into force on 01.01.2012.

The conducted analysis shows that the main cause 

of malfunctions of LLC “Gazprom Energo” systems in 
2008—2012 is (Fig. 1) external power supply interruptions 
— about 50% of all cases of malfunctions, about 20% of 
all cases are caused by inadequate technical condition of 
energy facilities, which is almost comparable to external 
impacts — 15%.

AEQDMS integration in LLC “Gazprom Energo” 

energy system, in combination with measures implemented 
by LLC “Gazprom Energo” on prevention and reduction of 
the number of power equipment malfunctions, will make 
it possible to greatly reduce the probability of occurrence 
of main causes of power equipment failures, which 


 uence energy system security. Besides, it will enable 

continuous monitoring of energy system actual condition, 
preventing probable malfunctions and analyzing accidents 
and incidents that have already taken place.

At present, target values of consumer power supply 

reliability and quality indicators are determined by 
regulatory authorities while establishing tariffs for 
electric power transmission. These rates take into account 
the average power supply interruption time at all power 
supply points in the region.

At the same time, in accordance with international 

standards, reliability of grid organizations is estimated 
depending on ef


 ciency of their activities with respect to 

end consumers.

In accordance with the RF power grid sector 

development strategy, approved by the regulation of RF 
Government of 03.04.2013 



, by 2017 all power 

grid organizations will be collecting data on power 
supply reliability and quality and calculating respective 
indicators using internationally accepted methods. With 
this purpose, actions are undertaken to establish, in 
power grid companies, the order of data recording with 
the use of measuring means, as well as to use selective 
audit procedures and methods of their correlation with 
consumers’ complaints.

Distribution grid organizations will use the System 

Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) 
and System Average Interruption Duration Index 

Fig.1. Causes of interruptions in power equipment operation 

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August 25–29, France, Paris

AEQDMS calculates SAIFI and SAIDI, enables 

continuous monitoring of these indicators (Fig. 2) and 
their analysis depending on the season, weather, energy 
system condition and other concomitant factors.

At present, SAIDI and SAIFI are used as reliability 

indicators with the aim of electric power transmission 

service rating and service quality 
estimation in Eastern Europe, North 
America, some CIS countries, and a 
number of grid organizations in Russia, 
such as JSC “Russian Grids” (Rosseti) 
and Irkutsk Power Grid Company.

The indicators re


 ect, among other 

things, the wear rate of the equipment. 
The outage frequency rate determines the 
number of equipment emergency outages: 
the higher its wear rate is, the more 
frequent its outages are. Outage duration 
includes organizational issues, i.e. how 
quickly the de-energized or damaged 
equipment is restored. It means that SAIFI 
regulates technical conditions, while 
SAIDI also takes account of organization 
of business processes. Introduction of 
these indicators requires learning to keep 
record of parameters they consist of: a 
multi-factor system of outage registration, 
which includes, among other things, 
categories of consumers and location of 
these consumers in the network topology.

For example, one of power quality 

indicators measured by AEQDMS is 
voltage non-sinusoidality. Nonsinusoidal 
voltage rises have impact on insulation of 
cable transmission lines — single-phase 
to ground faults occur more frequently 
(Fig. 3).

Another key task of the RF energy 

system development strategy is increasing 
transparency of information associated with 
power supply quality indicators. A centre 
for data collection, calculation, information 
reliability estimation and display, as 
well as audit of reliability and quality 
indicators will be created on the basis of a 
specialized organization, which carries out 
centralized supervisory control within the 


 ed Energy System of Russia. Besides, 

a methodology of comparative analysis 
of power grid organizations based on 
respective indicators and use of its results 
for rating of these indicators with the aim 
of tariff regulation for strengthening of 


 nancial accountability of power grid 

organizations for power supply quality and 
reliability will be adopted on the level of 
regulatory authorities; at that, at present, 

calculation and systematization of SAIDI 


 SAIFI indices 

in LLC “Gazprom Energo” are on the stage of development 
and integration.

Due to the fact that as of 2012 the wear rate of LLC 

“Gazprom Energo” power supply equipment is about 60%, 
increasing energy system reliability requires continuous 

Fig. 2. Recording of voltage dips and losses by 

AEQDMS. As regards calculating SAIDI and SAIFI

Fig. 3. Recording by AEQDMS of voltage non-sinusoidality 

indicator growth trend, exceeding rated values 

within 7-day interval

Real Time Monitoring

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LLC “Gazprom Energo” 

(operational wear)

LLC “Gazprom Energo” 

(balance wear
Average rate across RF 

(according to the Ministry of 

Energy of RF)
Gazprom Dobycha Orenburg

Gazprom Dobycha Astrakhan

Gazprom Dobycha Nadym

Gazprom Dobycha Urengoy

Gazprom Dobycha Yamburg



Power supply equipment relative wear












monitoring of power equipment 
technical condition (Fig. 4).

In order to solve this task, 

integration of a continuous real-
time equipment diagnostic system is 
needed. Integration of a condition-
based diagnostic system will make 
it possible to reduce grid company’s 
expenses within the framework of 
the investment program and current 
expenses on various kinds of repair 
works several times by extending 
equipment life-time.

Also, real-time equipment 

diagnostics can solve tasks of 



sources of disturbances in the energy 
system that in


 uence  equipment 

technical condition, reduce the time 
between repairs, and, consequently, 
cause electric power undersupply to 
consumers (Fig. 5).

Only integration of a system of 




cation and elimination of 

sources of disturbances can enable 
a grid company to extend power equipment life-time 
by 10—15% and reduce the enterprise’s energy system 
outage rate twice (Fig. 6).

Let’s outline some possible solutions to the speci



tasks upon AEQDMS integration in LLC “Gazprom 
Energo” energy system.



Upon AEQDMS installation in power transmission 

points on the border of operational responsibility with the 
superior grid organization, LLC “Gazprom Energo” will 
continuously have data about power quality indicators in 
these points, and namely in this case — data about voltage 
dips, their duration and cause (Fig. 7).

The given information will make it possible to 

substantiate the power supplier’s fault and, in case of 

Fig. 4. Relative wear rate of power supply equipment 

Established voltage 

deviation dUy

voltage unbalance 
factor K2u

factor Ku(n) 
2nd harmonic

factor Ku(n) 
3rd harmonic

Power facility monitoring

Power facility “portrait”



 cation of power facility 

operation modes



 cation of changes in power 

facility operation modes

Diagnostics algorithm and 

condition-based maintenance

Power facility operation forecasting 

(estimation of remaining life)

Preventive measures (control)

Fig. 5. Task of identifying power equipment technical condition 

based on current and voltage harmonics, diagnostics and 

estimation of remaining life 

generation technology violation by LLC “Gazprom 
Energo” consumers, prove the company’s innocence. If 
the power supply interruption continues longer than the 
permissible period, LLC “Gazprom Energo” will be able 


 le a complaint with a court of arbitration of RF about 

the power supplier’s failure to provide the services and 
request recovery of damages incurred.

Also, obtained information will make it possible to 

justify the chosen category of power supply reliability 
and, probably, prevent certain events that can take place 
in the power grid. Obtaining real-time information about 
energy characteristics, including power quality indicators, 
will enable developing algorithms of diagnostics and 
monitoring of power equipment based on current and 
voltage harmonics analysis.

Thus, over 70% of all interruptions will be predictable 

and preventable by respective measures.

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August 25–29, France, Paris

Real Time Monitoring





As of 2012, the wear rate of LLC 

“Gazprom Energo” external power 
supply facilities makes up from 55% 
(balance wear rate) to 70% (service 
wear rate), with the wear rate increasing 
during 5 years (2008—2012) by 
5—10% in both cases (Fig. 8).

Solving this problem requires 

installing AEQDMS on power equipment 
infeeds. Obtained information will make 
it possible to develop technologies of 
power equipment condition-monitored 
maintenance. In addition, these 
measures can make electric power 
consumers accountable for ensuring 
required power quality.


While solving the two above-

mentioned tasks, we will have 
AEQDMS in all basic points, which 
will make it possible to conduct overall 
monitoring of the energy system and 
LLC “Gazprom Energo” equipment 
condition. In its turn, it will enable 
reporting about disturbances caused by 
outside impacts by means of measures 
taken in advance (Fig. 9).

In 2012 LLC “Gazprom Energo” 

made a decision to build a System of 
energy management on the basis of 
ISO 50001: 2011. At that, AEQDMS 
deployment will provide signi



•   LLC “Gazprom Energo” will have 

access to objective information 
lying in the basis of decision-
taking, planning and forecasting that 
constitute management;

•  AEQDMS deployment will give 

impetus to development of innovative 
technologies and algorithms of 
reliability forecasting;

•  AEQDMS integration will provide 

real-time information for improving 
the regulatory technical policy;

•  AEQDMS as a management tool 

promotes saving of energy resources;

•  AEQDMS will make it possible to 

take sound management decisions on 
improving LLC “Gazprom Energo” 
power supply system reliability.

Fig. 9. Outside impacts

Fig.7. External power supply interruption

Fig. 8. Unsatisfactory technical condition of power equipment

Fig. 6. Task of 


 nding sources of disturbances in 

the energy system

Taking a “portrait” snapshot of the power grid following 

organization of its continuous monitoring 

Diagnostics of disturbances in the energy system, for example, 

those caused by an emergency 

Forecasting situation development and taking management 


Localizing the disturbance and reporting  

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Within the framework of implementation of JSC “Gazprom” energy strategy, LLC “Gazprom Energo” was assigned the role of a unified power grid company. LLC “Gazprom Energo” renders a full range of services on power supply of JSC “Gazprom” subsidiaries, as well as outside consumers by efforts of 11 branches in 42 subjects of RF.


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