Russian Power System Operator: Advantages and Current Сhallenges

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The MAIN JOURNAL for POWER GRID SPECIALISTS in RUSSIA


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14

Among the global power organizations comprising power 

engineers pursuant to their interests and directions 

of activities GO15 Association can be distinguished. 

GO15 includes the world’s largest power system operators. 

Unlike many other professional unions GO15 is a sort of 

elite club as to enter it the system operator must control 

the power system which total load exceeds 50 GW. Such 

large power systems are few in the world and their amount 

remains unchanged for many years.

The Russian System Operator plays an important role at 

GO15 not only due to the dimensions of the power system 

but also thanks to the 

efforts of its specialists. 

This year the of

fi

 cial 

representative of the 

company at GO15 Governing 

Board and Steering Board 

member, "System Operator 

of the United Power System" 

JSC Vice Chairman of the 

Management Board Fedor 

Opadchiy was elected 

GO15 Vice President. 

In his interview Fedor 

OPADCHIY spoke about 

the peculiarities of the 

Russian Power System 

and its dispatching control, 

history and future as well as 

on the major challenges 

it faces.

Russian Power System 
Operator: Advantages 
and Current Сhallenges

– What are the peculiarities of 

the power system controlled by 
the Russian system operator?

– Russia has the widest terri-

tory in the world, so its power sys-
tem can be characterized as one 
of a high geographic extent. It con-
sists of seven interconnected power 
systems, each of them, in its turn, 
including a signi

fi

 cant number of re-

gional power systems. Interconnect-
ed power systems comprise large 
centers of electric power generation 
and consumption and are connect-
ed with 330, 500, 750 kV main trans-
mission networks. 750 kV network 
is concentrated in the central part 
of the country. It primarily provides 

power delivery of the nuclear and 
the largest thermal power stations. 
The rest of the main transmission 
network infrastructure operates at 
220-330 kV and 500 kV. 220 kV and 
110 kV networks operate in the re-
gions delivering power to the largest 
energy hubs. The existing topo logy 
of the backbone network was basi-
cally formed in the Soviet times. An 
important role in the process of op-
eration of such an expanded power 
system  is  played  by  power 

fl

 ows  in 

the main network as well as by sys-
tem sustainability maintenance.

Historical peak of consump-

tion recorded in our power system 
amounted to 157.4 GW, annual 

p

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 s

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s

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 c

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power syst

ems control


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15

power consumption in 2017 slightly 
exceeded 1,000 TW/h, and the in-
stalled capacity as of 2017 reached 
almost 240 GW.

Most power stations with capac-

ity exceeding 25 MW and network 
facilities of 220-750 kV operating 
in the United Power System (UPS) 
of Russia serve as the objects of 
dispatch for the System Operator. 
110 kV network facilities are man-
aged by the System Operator only 
in case they have a systemic effect 
on regional electric power operation 
modes. Lower voltage type is rep-
resented by distribution networks 
operated mostly and locally by net-
work companies. The principal part 
of the distribution network complex 
enters  into  PJSC  ROS SETI, and 
alongside this there exist more than 
two thousand independent network 
companies.

The UPS of Russia is a part of 

a large IPS/UPS Interconnection 
ope rating synchronously and in-
cluding power systems of 12 coun-
tries. The UPS of Russia is the larg-
est part of the Interconnection. It 
shares about 70% of the total elec-
tricity consumption of the synchro-
nous zone. The size, geographic 
location of the UPS of Russia and 
network topo logy place Russia un-

der the duty of frequency regulation 
in the Interconnection. The Russian 
system operator pays fairly much 
attention to the synchronous op-
eration modes coordination both di-
rectly during modes operation and 
during development and promotion 
of normative documents and mar-
ket regulations.

The UPS of Russia was formed 

by consecutive consolidation of re-
gional power systems, so the cur-
rent structure of dispatch control re-

fl

 ects such composition of the power 

sector. There are three levels of the 
dispatch control structure: Central 
dispatching of

fi

 ce, 7 interregional 

dispatching of

fi

 ces and 49 regional 

dispatching of

fi

 ces. Such hierarchy 

is, in many ways, motivated by vi-
ability reasons of such a large and 
extended power system. Sharing 
responsibilities among the dispatch-
ing of

fi

 ces of the System Operator 

allows to provide control in compli-
cated and emergency situations, 
as  well  as  to  deal  more  thoroughly 
with the issues of regional power 
systems development planning be-
ing highly important for the UPS of 
Russia which historically developed 
in  the  conditions  of  shortage  of  re-
sources and has a signi

fi

 cant  num-

ber of bottlenecks.

– How do the power system 

peculiarities affect its electric 
mode operation? 

– The Russian power system has 

good natural capabilities for optimi-
zation of modes of generation load, 
as well as for sustaining reliability.

First, wide capabilities of optimal 

usage of the existing generating ca-
pacities naturally originate from the 
high geographic extent of the power 
system due to location of the UPS 
of Russia synchronous zone within 
seven time zones. The load peak 
moves within the power system from 
the East to the West together with 
the sun allowing for a more effective 
usage of the existing power stations. 
Due to the coincidence of the load 
peak, when the total peak of the 
power system is signi

fi

 cantly  lower 

than the total of local load peaks in 
its parts, the requirements for the 
power system maximum capac-
ity reserves decrease and a tighter 
time schedules of loading of power 
stations is achieved with a direct 
impact on the power generation ef-
fectiveness.

To fully use the effect, the Sys-

tem Operator implements proce-
dures of consecutive planning of 
the system operation modes, which 
include hourly complete optimiza-

United Power System (UPS) of Russia comprises  

7 Interconnected Power Systems (IPS) 

70 Regional Power Systems 

9 time zones 

UTC +2 
MSK -1 

UTC +3 
MSK 

UTC +5 
MSK +2 

UTC +6 
MSK +3 

UTC +7 
MSK +4 

UTC +8 
MSK +5 

UTC +9 
MSK +6 

UTC +10 
MSK +7 

-  IPS of East 

-  IPS of Siberia 

- IPS of Urals 

-  IPS of Middle Volga 

-  IPS of South 

-  IPS of Center 

- IPS of North-West 

- Isolated 

UTC +4 
MSK +1 

UPS of Russia service area

47th CIGRE Session 

Special issue, August 2018


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16

tion of loading modes for all power 
stations operating at the wholesale 
electricity market, and there are 
about 400 of them. This planning 
system ensures the highest system 
effectiveness of fuel consumption by 
using the most effective generating 
equipment among that available at 
the moment considering the actual 
costs for power transmission. Due to 
the great geographical extent of the 
power system, the climate impact 
differs much in different regions: 
temperature can be higher than the 
forecast in some regions, and lower 
in others, and thus the task of re-
balancing of the system operation 
to a mode close to the real time be-
comes more urgent.

Secondly, we consider thermal 

generation, namely gas, as the main 
method of electric power generation 
because Russia possesses great-
est reserves of the world’s gas re-
sources.  In  Russia  it  is  a  relatively 
cheap fuel type and it is also much 
more ecology-friendly as compared 
to coal the reserves of which are 
signi

fi

 cant as well. Thermal gen-

eration share in the total genera-
tion capacity of the UPS of Russia
is over 68%.

An important role is played by 

hydrogeneration responsible for 
over 20% of the total capacity of the 
country’s power system. Both ther-
mal and hydro generation are highly 

fl

 exible resources that give serious 

advantage for electric power mode 
operation. Low-

fl

 exible 

nuclear 

generation covers 11% of the total 
generation capacity of the UPS of 
Russia and is concentrated in the 
western part of the UPS of Russia 
up to the Urals.

An important feature of the UPS 

of Russia is a large share of thermal 
power stations with combined gener-
ation of electricity and thermal pow-
er, which is explained by the climate 
factors speci

fi

 c for Russia. Most of 

our cities and towns use systems of 
centralized heat and water supply 
due to the fact that the most effec-
tive method of fossil fuel combustion 
is combined cycle operation with the 
theoretically possible ef

fi

 ciency  ap-

proaching 100%. Thus, simultane-
ous introduction of heat supply and 
electric power generation allows for 
signi

fi

 cant reduction of fuel costs. 

However, this imposes additional 
limitations on load maneuvers at 
such stations (primarily, on unload-

ing below the value speci

fi

 ed),  be-

cause heat generation modes are 
of top priority in accordance with the 
federal laws. To some extent, the 
volumes of electric power genera-
tion in the cogeneration mode are 
considered by us as an analogue to 
the in

fl

 uence on the RES balance 

considering the dif

fi

 culties of oper-

ating generating facilities based on 
RES due to instability of the latter. 
This cannot be a complete ana-
logue, though, as the cogeneration 
modes are much more predictable 
than RES, and there are alternative 
methods of heat generation; still in 
general, generation in the cogenera-
tion modes is considered by us to 
be one of the main "consumers" of 
a power system 

fl

 exibility in winter 

time. And it undoubtedly has a sig-
ni

fi

 cant effect on all dispatch control 

procedures.

Third, some market instruments 

are used to support adequacy and 
stability. Primarily, it is the capac-
ity market that stimulates generat-
ing companies to maintain the pow-
er objects in a proper operational 
state. Ancillary services market was 
launched several years ago to solve 
the issues of formation of neces-

IPS of Urals

Generation total = 260659,9

TPP = 217526,1

HPP = 6515,8

NPP = 10201,9

Wind = 0,9

Solar = 127,9

Own-use generation = 26287,2

Consumption = 261199,7

Net import = 539,8

ESTONIA

IPS of Center

Generation total = 237546,5

TPP = 121824,2

HPP = 4372,4

NPP = 100363,2

Own-use generation = 10986,7

Consumption = 238558,2

Net import = 1011,8

Text

kjkjkjk

IPS of North-West

Generation total = 108354,7

TPP = 48183,2

HPP = 14164,8
NPP = 36904,3

Wind = 0,8

Own-use generation = 9101,7

Consumption = 93899,4

Net import = -14455,4

IPS of Siberia

Generation total = 202657,8

TPP = 98693,1

HPP = 93943,2

Solar = 30,1

Own-use generation = 9991,4

Consumption = 205876,2

Net import = 3218,4

IPS of Middle Volga

Generation total = 107782,4

TPP = 47166,8

HPP = 25859,3
NPP = 31995,3

Own-use generation = 2760,6

Consumption = 108015,5

Net import = 233,1

IPS of South

Generation total = 100006,5

TPP = 53366,2

HPP = 21774,7
NPP = 23177,7

Wind = 128,3
Solar = 404,6

Own-use generation = 1154,9

Consumption = 99093,5

Net import = -912,9

LATVIA

LITHUANIA

BELARUS

UKRAINE

AZERBAIJAN

KAZAKHSTAN

2679,8

1983,3

2687,5

78,3

53,9

439,7

MONGOLIA

5819,4

GEORGI A

IPS of East

Generation total = 36854,2

TPP = 24581,9

HPP = 12272,3

Consumption = 33237,3

Net import = -3616,9

CHINA

3319,2

FINLAND

SOUTH OSSETIA

ABKHASIA

152,4

218,8

3756,5

297,7

460,6

5987,3

917,4

1747,4

3946,3

NORWAY

(cross-border trade)

103,7

UPS of Russia

Generation total = 1053861,9

TPP = 611341,5

HPP = 178901,6
NPP = 202642,4

Wind = 131
Solar = 563

Own-use generation = 60282,5

Consumption = 1039879,9

Net import = -13982,1

2754,2

347,4

Western Area of

Sakha (Yakutia)

Generation total = 3003,6

TPP = 2,4

HPP = 3001,1

Consumption = 2950,1

Net import = -53,4

53,4

78,7

318,5

28,6

275,5

1291,9

16,8

1794,3

1258,6

UPS of Russia cross-border interconnections (bln kWh)

POWER SYSTEMS 

CONTROL


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sary reserves of rated primary and 
automated secondary frequency 
control. It adds to the capacity mar-
ket mecha nisms creating resources 
needed to support reliability and op-
erational quality of the power system. 
Economic mechanisms are also built 
in the structures of the day-ahead 
and balancing markets and aimed at 
more accurate compliance of power 
stations with time schedules and in-
structions of a dispatch control engi-
neer.

– Nowadays, a number of the 

world’s largest power systems 
undergo processes of unbun-
dling the functions of power sys-
tem dispatching from the network 
operators structure and a transfer 
to the independent system ope-
rator model. Each country has 
its own reasons to do this. What 
were the reasons for Russia to 
choose the independent system 
operator model?

– The independent status of the 

System Operator in Russia came 
as a natural result of the in

fl

 uence of 

a series of economic conditions and 
technical particularities of the power 
system. In Russia the concept of the 
independent dispatch control was 
developed at the beginning of 2000s 
during preparation of the sectoral 
reform, in the course of which the 
power complex was unbundled as 
per activity types: generation, trans-
mission, supply, scienti

fi

 c  research 

and engineering and etc., and fur-
ther competitive types of business 
were privatized. Under such circum-
stances, in order to ensure techno-
logical integrity of operation of such 
a large and extended power system 
as well as to provide possibilities for 
systemic optimization of its opera-
tion, which I described before, it was 
required to structurally incorporate 
within a single company the func-
tions of dispatch control of the UPS 
of Russia at large as well as of the in-
terconnected power systems and the 
regional power systems which were 
formerly under control of vertically in-
tegrated regional holding companies. 

Besides, in the circumstances of 

unbundling of the electric power in-
dustry by the activity types and com-
petitive businesses privatization, 
nearly every technological action of 
the System Operator in

fl

 uence eco-

nomic results of certain market play-

ers' activities; and the scale and the 
scope of such in

fl

 uence  increases 

dramatically upon rise of the level 
of centralization of ope rational dis-
patch control functions. The simplest 
example – coordination of repair 
schedules of the electric network and 
generating equipment. In our power 
system with a signi

fi

 cant number of 

bottlenecks, it is often impossible to 
conduct all necessary works with the 
equipment owned by different own-
ers, so their mutual coordination is 
required. It becomes critical during 
ful

fi

 llment of such function to avoid 

the con

fl

 ict of interests and af

fi

 liation 

of the System Operator with any of 
the market members.

Another example. Modern pow-

er markets aim at optimizing the 
cost of power for consumers. With 
that it often happens that loading 
a cheaper power station, located 
remotely from the consumer, proves 
to be more effective than loading of 
an expensive one which is nearby, 
despite the fact that this leads to in-
creased network losses. This is an 
advantage for the consumer who 
pays for the whole chain – genera-
tion plus transmission; but for a net-
work company this means direct 
rise of costs related to compensa-
tion of additional losses. In case 
the  System  Operator  is  merged 
with a network company a new 
con

fl

 ict of interests arises. By the 

way, we conducted special simula-
tion together with the Trade System 
Administrator (Russian Power Ex-
change) to learn what would hap-
pen if the wholesale market was 
restructured for the purpose of net-
work losses optimization, and the 
results we got were catastrophic 
for the consumer meaning the price 
increase by 2 or 3 times provided 
that the current principles of price 
formation were preserved at the 
wholesale market. This means that 
the independence of the system op-
erator is an important condition for 
the current organizational model of 
market relations within the Russian 
electric power sector to exist.

The System Operator is deeply 

involved in the processes of tech-
nological connection of new con-
sumers and power stations to the 
network. According to the laws appli-
cable in Russia, all technical speci-

fi

 cations issued by network organi-

zations for connection of generation 

and consumers with a capacity of 
more than 5 MW are mandatorily to 
be approved by the System Opera-
tor. In this process we act as an in-
dependent technical expert and this 
helps us to balance the problems 
of maintaining the power system 
reliability and economic results of 
speci

fi

 c technical solutions of differ-

ent sectoral subjects. The indepen-
dent status of the System Operator 
makes it possible to avoid the con-

fl

 ict of interests within this process 

as well as to ensure transparency of 
the suggested solutions for all par-
ticipants of the process.

There are many other examples 

of potential con

fl

 icts of interests be-

tween the functions and the owner-
ship structure of the System Opera-
tor. Just because of this, the variant 
of a completely independent system 
operator with 100% control over it 
being retained by the government 
was chosen while reforming of Rus-
sian electric power sector.

– What are the main challeng-

es that your company is facing 
now? How do you manage them? 
What kind of problems does this 
help to reveal?

– Not all the forecasts consid-

ered at reforming of Russian elec-
tric power sector worked well. At 
present we have faced a signi

fi

 cant 

slowdown in electric power con-
sumption growth (demand stag-
nation); it made less than 1% in 
2017 whereas the forecast value of 
annual increase of electric power 
consumption was stated to be about 
4-5%. As a result, today, instead of 
shortage, we have about 15% of 
generating capacity in excess of the 
needed volume with due account for 
reserves. Such change of the ba-
lance resulted in signi

fi

 cant  growth 

of competition among suppliers, and 
consequently, noticeable decrease 
of the relative cost of electric power 
on the free market. Rates of electric 
power prices growth on the whole-
sale market lag behind those of the 
prices for the basic type of fuel used, 
i.e. gas. All these reduce investment 
attractiveness of the sector and sets 
forward a number of fundamentally 
new tasks.

The core of the generating 

fl

 eet in 

the UPS of Russia is formed by the 
power stations built in 1970s. Taking 
into account completion of the CSA 

47th CIGRE Session 

Special issue, August 2018


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program according to which new 
equipment was put into operation, 
now the current task is to develop 
and implement mechanisms facilitat-
ing modernization and prolongation 
of the life-cycle of the existing ge-
nerating capacities. As of today, over 
40 GW of thermal power stations 
require replacement of turbines that 
have exhausted their 

fl

 eet life. Other 

large-scale equipment of power sta-
tions also needs to be replaced.

In order to implement such ma-

jor plans special mechanisms re-
quire to be established in the sector 
to ensure massive implementation 
of such type of projects. Neverthe-
less, simultaneous decommission-
ing of equipment for reconstruction 
at different power stations must not 
cause problems of temporary ca-
pacity shortages in the power sys-
tem, as a whole and in some of its 
parts, in particular. Reconstruction 
is reasonable to be applied, 

fi

 rst  of 

all, to the most relevant equipment, 
this means that regular modes of 
ope ration will also be changed in the 
course of the program implementa-
tion. In order to correctly and prop-
erly consider all technical aspects of 
the massive modernization, currently 
the System Operator takes an active 
part in the process of development 
of applicable rules and procedures. 
Jointly with the wholesale electricity 
market commercial operator we held 
test tender for the purpose of mo-

der nization projects selection, and 
we got about 400 bids from various 
power stations. This makes it pos-
sible for us to evaluate approximate 
parameters of the moder 

nization 

program and the projects structures 
even today.

The second acute problem is 

related to the previous one and 
consists in setting up a process of 
decommissioning of outdated and 
non-effective capacities that cannot 
be reasonably upgraded due to tech-
nological or economical factors. This 
issue is quite complicated as a sig-
ni

fi

 cant part of the operating thermal 

generation ensures district heating 
of cities, towns and settlements, 
thus, even power stations that are 
unpro

fi

 table cannot be closed with-

out any substitution, this being very 
often related to serious investments. 
The similar problems arise if certain 
generating units affect stability of 
local electric modes due to the lo-
cations of the units in the network; 
substitutional actions are required at 
decommissioning of such units, and 
sometimes even commissioning of 
new generating capacities may be 
needed. Solving of such matters re-
quires a separate code of rules and 
procedures to be set, this is what we 
are actively engaged in today.

There are also other important 

issues set forth by today’s world. It 
is, for example, development of the 
common electric market with Ka-

zakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kir-
gizia. This project is very interesting 
in all terms – technological, political, 
legal and organizational. I think, it 
will be quite dif

fi

 cult to synchronize 

different models of power sector 
organization which vary so much. 
But still we believe that we will be 
a success in everything; this as-
sumption is supported by the posi-
tive experience that we have had in 
synchronizing Russian market and 
Nord Pool (nowadays it is part of the 
European Internal Energy Market) 
during the power exchanges with 
Finland.

Speaking about internal chal-

lenges, three main directions can be 
determined. First of all, we are now 
executing a large project of imple-
mentation of a new-age SCADA in 
all of our 57 system control centers. 
The life cycle of the current solu-
tion is being 

fi

 nished, and we are in 

the process of designing of the new 
SCADA-system, as well as of phased 
implementation of its key blocks, 
such as the hierarchical manager 
of network models, calculated sub-
systems etc. The task is even more 
complicated due to the fact that,
given the existing three-level struc-
ture  of  operating  dispatch  control, 
all our key IT-systems require a dis-
tributed structure, on the one hand, 
and, on the other hand, it is critical 
for us to ensure not only data integri-
ty and consistency in all dispatching 

SO UPS Main Control Center

POWER SYSTEMS 

CONTROL


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19

of

fi

 ces at the same time, but also 

the possibility of autonomous opera-
tion of each of them in emergency 
situations. This task is very compli-
cated and interesting with regard to 
IT. We consider very important and 
useful our GO15 colleagues’ experi-
ence and results of GO15 Commit-
tee 4 "Grid Intelligence" research as 
well as such documents as White 
Paper "EMS for the 21st Century 
System Requirements" by CIGRE in 
2011 for the designing process and 
practical work. All these enable us 
to  consider  most  advanced  global 
achievements during new SCADA 
system development.

Second, we actively develop 

both new automation tools based on 
WAM (Wide Area Measurements) 
technologies and emergency auto-
matics. The research conducted 
within GO15 Committee 4 "Grid In-
telligence" demonstrated that, as 
of 2015, the UPS of Russia ranked 
third in terms of the quantity of the 
mounted phasor measurement 
units (PMU). Within the framework 
of our technical policy, we imple-
ment a complex program of devel-
opment of automation technologies 
based on phasor measurements.

And third, we implement pro-

jects focused on operating dispatch 
control organizational framework 
improvement. We integrate opera-
tional zones of regional dispatching 
of

fi

 ces and pass control of a small-

er regional power system where big 
generating facilities or consumer 
centers to a neighboring larger 
control center are not exist. Such 
projects are implemented not only 
to optimize expenses, though this is 
important, but to improve the power 
system control by development of 

new technologies and strengthen-
ing of the personnel in the remain-
ing system control centers. Such 
projects are quite complicated in 
terms of technology, as they re-
quire restructuring of the existing 
communication network and the 
IT-infrastructure, as well as training 
of staff. In such a way, we consoli-
dated 16 dispatching of

fi

 ces  over 

the last years.

– For the last years the tradi-

tional state of the power sector 
was being changed under the 
in

fl

 uence of new technologies: 

distribution of RES, distributed 
generation, power electronics, 
Smart Grid. How does the power 
system dispatch control mecha-

nism react to these changes in 
your country?

– In Russia, a governmentally 

approved development program of 
wind and sun generation has been 
established for several years al-
ready. Project selection and earning 
income by the RES owners are in 
accordance with the principles well-
proven on the capacity market. De-
velopment of such generation is, just 
like in many other countries, subsi-
dized on the account of other mar-
ket participants. Tenders for building 
a certain volume of the RES are held 
annually. As of today, 234 MW of so-
lar generation have been commis-
sioned; last year the 

fi

 rst large wind 

farm with the capacity of 35 MW 
was put into operation. Localization 
of the corresponding equipment pro-
duction on the Russian territory is an 
important requirement to these pro-
jects. All new projects that are annu-
ally submitted for tender contain re-
quirements for a deeper localization 
of the equipment production facili-
ties. Considering insigni

fi

 cant  RES 

volumes, their commissioning has 
not yet had any effect on the prin-
ciples and the major procedures of 
the Russian power system control. 
Nevertheless, the System Operator 
takes an active part in the process 
of setting up a normative and tech-
nological basis for RES functioning 
within the UPS of Russia, and also 

Reliable and Sustainable Power Grids

is association of system operators responsible for 

control of large power systems above 50 GW. Founded in 2004.
GO15 unites the efforts of the world’s largest system operators in 
order to solve similar problems with the aim of common sustainable 
development under the conditions of steady expansion of power sys-
tems and increasing dependence of social and economic growth on 
security of power supply.

GO15 members are 19 power grid operators:

AEMO 

(Australia)

Elia Group 

(Belgium)

ONS 

(Brazil)

National Grid 

(UK)

CSG / CSPG 

(China)

SGCC 

(China)

Power Grid / PGCIL 

(India)

REE 

(Spain)

Terna 

(Italy)

SO UPS, JSC 

(Russia

)

CAISO 

(USA)

MISO / Midcontinent ISO 

(USA)

PJM Interconnection 

(USA)

RTE 

(France)

TEPCO 

(Japan)

ESKOM 

(South Africa)

KPX 

(Republic of Korea)

CENACE 

(Mexico)

GCCIA 

(Cooperation Council for 

the Arab States of the Gulf Power 

Systems Interconnection Board)

GO15

SO UPS delegation at the GO15 Governing Board meeting in Moscow. September 2016

47th CIGRE Session 

Special issue, August 2018


Page 8
background image

20

works on determination of technical 
standards for interaction with such 
power stations. Requirement to the 
generating facilities’ staff, their ob-
servability at the dispatching of

fi

 ces 

etc. are speci

fi

 ed. According to the 

rules, right away such facilities are 
obliged to ensure readiness for oper-
ative disconnection from the network 
upon an operator's command. We 
assume that it is necessary to follow 
the route of extended requirements 
to RES participation in the processes 
of the power system control. For ex-
ample, in frequency control.

This, to the full extent, also con-

cerns distributed generation. Un-
der Russian conditions, these are 
mostly small thermal power stations 
using gas-fueled generating tech-
nology, or small gas turbines. Such 
stations are constructed by the end 
users to whom savings on the net-
work tariff are signi

fi

 cant. They can 

also  be  used  by  plants  that  have 
got gas as a by-product that must 
be disposed of in accordance with 
ecological requirements after all. 
In a number of cases application of 
such solutions helps the consumer 
to economize signi

fi

 cantly,  particu-

larly in cases when a new facility is 
connected to a system. Today this 
process develops dynamically, so 
it is very important to determine 
the uni

fi

 ed rules that will not do any 

harm to other players.

Development of consumers’ ge-

ne ration caused new challenges: 
how should a consumer being an 
owner of generating facility inter-
act with the power system; should 
the "big" power system consider 
this facility as a reserve, and if yes, 
then what volume of generation; 
what should be his economic rela-
tions with the UPS of Russia; and 
others. One of the solutions set up 
and promoted by us, as far as dis-
tributed generation is concerned, is 
the concept of a self-balancing utility 
company (SBUC). In its essence, it 
is a micro power system – a mini-
VIC (vertically integrated company) 
which combines all: consumption, 
generation and transmission. The 
basic idea lies in the limited connec-
tion of such "cell" to the "big" power 
system 

fi

 xing relations with the "cell" 

strictly within the scope of such con-
nection with full liberalization of in-
ternal relations between the entities. 
To our mind, such model could be 

suitable for economic clusters – in-
dustrial and business parks. At pres-
ent the model is considered as a pi-
lot model.

– Does your power system use 

any economical Demand Response 
technologies? What do you think 
of their potential? If not used, do 
you plan to introduce any?

– Yes, they are certainly used. 

This mechanism was developed 
and started working last year. Start-
ing from January 1, 2017, this new 
mechanism has been included in the 
day-ahead market procedures. We 
use it to extend participation of our 
consumers in the procedures en-
suring the market balance between 
demand and supply, as well as to 
increase competition. Today several 
large industrial consumers, particu-
larly, aluminum plants, participate in 
the programs of economical demand 
response on the wholesale market. 
At present Demand Response rules 
are at the stage of development for 
the retail market. 

– "Power System of the Fu-

ture" term is becoming more and 
more popular in the global power 

fi

 eld. What does this notion mean 

for you?

– The notion of the "Power Sys-

tem of the Future" does not seem to 
have only one meaning to me. Of 
course, there is a constituent which 
is common to all of us. It includes, for 
example, the endeavor to increase 
power system energy ef

fi

 ciency and 

get maximum possibilities not out of 
extensive growth, but by implemen-
tation of innovative technologies.

Extensive development is be-

coming more and more expensive – 
it is impossible already to extend 
networks in many countries due to 
the lack of land. This means that, 
on the one hand, the share of dis-
tributed generation will grow, and on 
the other hand, that it is necessary 
to make the maximum use of the 
possibilities offered by the existing 
infrastructure. And this is then the 
so-called "smartisation" – 

fl

 exible 

transmission systems, power elec-
tronics, improvement of monitoring 
and control systems. For example, 
here, in Russia, we develop systems 
for monitoring of reliability margins 
of the transmission network with 
potential implementation of WAM 

technologies, based on the same 
principles as the unique Russian 
centralized automated emergency 
control systems. The monitoring 
systems enable to optimize usage 
of available transmission capacity 
of interconnections by harmonizing 
interconnection working mode with 
current operational mode of the 
power system.

An important constituent of the 

"power system of the future" no-
tion – application of Demand Re-
sponse technologies. This also 
helps to improve the power system 
output. For example, at present in 
the UPS of Russia there are about 
2 GW demanded less than 44 hours 
a year. Just as any other genera-
tors, these facilities participate in the 
capa city market and their capacity is 
paid for all the year round. Instead, 
it is possible to pay a relatively small 
sum for the consumers to decrease 
consumption within these 44 hours 
a year. This is more effective from 
the point of view of the power sys-
tem economy.

Voltage types will also grow, as 

this helps to increase the networks 
transmission capacity without creat-
ing new corridors for the intercon-
nections; generation will move clos-
er to the centers of consumption, or 
vice versa, to the places concentrat-
ing primary resources, particularly 
speaking of the RES; direct current 
transmission lines and power elec-
tronic devices must develop.

I presume that in the "Power Sys-

tem of the Future" we will also 

fi

 nd 

a solution to the issues of electric 
power storage, but it should not be 
only by means of a universal break-
through innovation. Each coun-
try can solve the matter in its own 
way, depending on the possibilities 
and natural advantages that it has. 
Somewhere there can be power stor-
age hubs made up of an enormous 
number of small-capacity batteries. 
Traditional pump-storage plants 
will continue to be developed, and 
somewhere new solutions will be set 
up and introduced, such as gravity 
power storages. In any case, the 
power system will obtain new quali-
tative features only when it has got 
many power storages and all of them 
are integrated by sole control sys-
tems.  

Interview was conducted

by Natalya Saltykova

POWER SYSTEMS 

CONTROL


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Among the global power organizations comprising power engineers pursuant to their interests and directions of activities GO15 Association can be distinguished. GO15 includes the world’s largest power system operators. Unlike many other professional unions GO15 is a sort of elite club as to enter it the system operator must control the power system which total load exceeds 50 GW. Such large power systems are few in the world and their amount remains unchanged for many years. The Russian System Operator plays an important role at GO15 not only due to the dimensions of the power system but also thanks to the efforts of its specialists. This year the official representative of the company at GO15 Governing Board and Steering Board member, «System Operator of the United Power System» JSC Vice Chairman of the Management Board Fedor Opadchiy was elected GO15 Vice President. In his interview Fedor OPADCHIY spoke about the peculiarities of the Russian Power System and its dispatching control, history and future as well as on the major challenges it faces.

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