Development of Active-adaptive networks

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Development of Active-adaptive 


Head of the laboratory «Intelligent Energy» JIHT RAS, Deputy 
Chairman of the Architectural Committee for creation of smart 
grid at joint scientific and technical council of JSC UES FGC and 
Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir DOROFEEV (Владимир 
ДОРОФЕЕВ) tells about features of smart energy-architecture 
system with active-adaptive network and necessary conditions 
for its implementation.

— Vladimir Valerianovich, now you are a mem-

ber of the Architectural Committee for creation of 
IPS AAN, whose work is focused on the development 
of reference architecture of active-adaptive network 
(AAS). At the same time, both abroad and in Russia 
continues to develop the concept of creating an "intel-
lectual grid", or Smart Grid. What is the difference 
between AAS ideology from Smart Grid ideology?

— FGC UES in Russia for the 


 rst time, set fundamen-

tally new approach to modernization of the technology 
base of domestic power system. The 


 rst step in this di-

rection was the elaboration of a concept for development 
of intellectual power supply system with active-adaptive 
network (IPS AAS).

The preparation of this document involved the analysis 

of work carried out in that regard. It should be noted that 
up to now developments conducted in different countries 
have no unambiguous interpretation for the term Smart 
Grid. However, the ideology of this development has been 
primarily focused on creating control systems within the 
local electricity distribution level of domestic nature of 
the controlled load and maximum inclusion in these sys-
tems of alternative and renewable energy sources with 
emphasis on energy saving. Recently, however, a number 
of countries — United States, China, South Korea and 
Europe — carried out works beyond the local systems 
to create interfaces for their integration into the central-
ized power grid, as well as to develop general manage-
ment systems including the use of multiagent control 

The Russian approach to new technology is based 

on creating conditions enabling the integration at all 
levels — from the FGC to distribution networks — of 
active elements that change the network parameters de-
pending on the situation in power grid, creating terms for 
connected to customer networks (generation and consum-
ers) providing the most complete and ef


 cient transport 

of electricity between them. This is a more complex task, 
requiring both multiparametric substantial modernization 
of the primary power equipment and the creation of a fun-
damentally new management system that responds to the 
situation in real time. Moreover such a system is based on 
the enormous information 


 ows and modern high-speed 

and secure communications systems. In general, we are 
talking about creating energoinformational system of a 
new type, unifying new energy technologies, modern dis-
tributed control systems and telecommunications. This 
type of energoinformational system creates the possibility 
of new market mechanisms in the relationship between 
suppliers and users of electricity, providing them with the 
most ef


 cient use of this resource. All of this together is 

called an IPS AAS.

One of the 


 rst steps towards the practical implemen-

tation of this ideology was the establishment of the joint 


 c and technical Council of JSC FGC UES and the 

RAS Architectural Committee on development of intel-
lectual energy. The Committee in addition to representa-
tives of these organizations includes representatives of 
generation, consumers, local networks and developers 
of IT technologies. The Committee established expert 
working groups, specialized in different directions, to 
provide agreed decisions on building IPS AAS architec-
ture, which meets the interests of all actors involved in 
the production, transmission, distribution and consump-
tion of electricity. On the basis of the proposals of the ex-
pert working groups the Architectural Committee should 
take a decision on the overall architecture of the system 
to move: the road map, including the development of pi-

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DIGEST, February, 2014


Network management

lot projects of energy fragments, pilot projects of sepa-
rate united energy systems (in particular, East IPS) and 
further steps towards creating entire IPS AAS of Russia.

— Could you explain what the IPS AAS architec-

ture is and what exactly should the Architectural Com-
mittee agree on?

— The concept of system architecture has its roots in 

the development of different kinds of computer systems, 
primarily built on the principle of parallel computing in 
order to improve the performance of the overall system. 
With the development of information technologies provid-
ing transfer, processing and use of information for various 
purposes, this concept has slightly extended including not 
only computing, but also various types of communication 
channels and data throughput with the de


 nition of ways 

they interact with distributed computing systems. Today 
when developing complex systems the notion of their ar-
chitecture is critical when determining the principles of 
construction and future operation of the system during its 

Reference architecture should be universal providing 

different classes and categories (users) of the future sys-
tem with maximum comfort to include their own current 
processes and give an idea of the possible transformation 
of these processes in the future under various conditions 
in user and external environments.

In developing the IPS AAS ideology the architecture 

concept of this system includes presentation of a uni



description of the conceptual model specifying objects in 
the system, interfaces between these objects and services 
presented to processes participants supported by the sys-
tem. Architecting the IPS AAS as energy-system should 
include three basic elements: the architecture of power en-
gineering systems, architecture of information and com-
munication interactions including control systems and 
architecture of economic relations between actors in the 
power market.

As I've already said the Architectural Committee con-

sists of experts from many organizations interested in the 
fact that the future energy system meets their requirements, 
in some cases contradictory, to access and use of energy 
supplied by grid. The harmonization of the positions of 
various parties through architectural view of IPS AAS is 
the main objective of the Architectural Committee.

The most dif


 cult is the communications architecture 

that connects all IPS AAS subsystems; so the 


 gure illus-

trates an out-line scheme of this architecture.

— When do you schedule to complete works on uni-

fi cation "smart grids" architecture and the develop-
ment of appropriate standards?

— The developed concept de


 nes a strategic vision 

of the future energy system, all work to create the smart 

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Fig. IPS AAS extended communications architecture

grid — a complex and controversial process. Many of the 
tasks require major scienti


 c and engineering study and 

reasoning. Some decisions in the course of this work may 
be deemed non-viable (infeasible or low-tech), there may 
be new ideas or ways to solve. Now, for example, there is 
a discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of 
centralized and distributed control systems and their pos-
sible combinations (the optimal allocation of authority) to 
create IPS AAS control system. The choice of this deci-
sion will condition many subsequent steps. In general, the 
work on the creation and coordination IPS AAS architec-
ture will be completed by the end of 2014.

If we talk about standardization, the creation of such a 

system is impossible without coordinated decisions based 
on the huge number of standards. In this regard it is neces-
sary to use existing and emerging international standards, 
take part in the work of recognized organizations such as 
the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the 
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Na-
tional Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and 
others. In addition, a number of standards should be de-
veloped by Russian specialists, in particular linking CIM-
power system model with market procedures for building 
the single information space for IPS AAS technology.

— What effects will be achieved in the implementa-

tion of such an ideology?

— Given the complexity of the future energy system 

its effectiveness can not be evaluated by conventional 
methods. Comparison of the current state of the system 

by a particular range of parameters, including those men-
tioned by you, as well as today user satisfaction (or dis-
satisfaction) with the same parameters and assessment 
for 2025—2030 IPS AAS, especially at this stage, when 
all solutions are not developed and tested yet, is only 
possible in the representation of qualitative or expert 

With that said, it should be noted that the 



of the transmission system in conjunction with the imple-
mentation of the market mechanism of electricity trans-
mission services will permit to identify the most ef



transport routes increasing their use (load) factor and, con-
versely, to abandon heavily loaded and unused connec-
tions. The effect of such solutions can be evaluated by the 
two constituents:
•  reduce electricity transmission losses to 30% of the 

current level;

•  reduce direct investments to the power part of the 

power system up to 20%.
It should be noted that the cost of a system creation 

is primarily related to capital investments in automation 
and control systems, and their value is commensurate with 
capital investments savings.

It is possible to cite estimates for other indicators in-

cluding the improvement of reliability due to more ef



cient operation of automation and control systems, as well 
as active participation of electricity consumers in the pro-
cess, but I'm not going to call speci


 c numbers, because it 

requires even more serious study.

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DIGEST, February, 2014


Network management

I want to give you one example. If you go back 10—15 

years ago, you remember, what was the connection? Mo-
bile communications devices only began to emerge. At 
that time, one could not even imagine how in today's life 
we cannot do without them. Whether it was possible then 
to evaluate the effectiveness of such solutions and the tech 
boom (various services) around the mobile communica-
tion systems? Implementation of the IPS AAS is to a great 
extent an analogue of such a solution.

— The speed and success of implementation of any 

"smart grid" architecture in workfl ows of network 
companies are directly dependent on the readiness of 
core network equipment, as well as the existing devices 
and systems to manage this equipment. We know that 
more or less prepared for such events are UNPG fa-
cilities only. If we talk about the distribution networks, 
willingness of major tie-stations and medium voltage 
networks in large cities can be considered. All other 
network objects before implementing automation de-
vices will likely require reconstruction and moderniza-
tion, and this huge investment, which will stretch over 
years. With this in mind, at what levels, highlighting 
what stages and in what timeframe “smart grid ideol-
ogy” could be introduced in Russian power industry?

— Your question is discussed at different levels and 

constantly posed as follows: "And if we are not ready to-
day to receive signi


 cant effects, is it worth doing this? Or 

maybe develop the network as they did before? After that 
the power system, available in Russia was created by cer-
tain canons and is one of the most powerful in the world". 
But the situation is such that the power system equipment 
because of its age still requires replacement. Therefore, 
when determining the directions of modernization and de-
velopment it is essential to determine what power system 

will be result of these works. The concept of IPS AAS 
development is the answer to the question and establish-
ment of its architecture is the 


 rst real step to design. The 

technical requirements to the system, its elements (power 
facilities and the equipment installed), as well as to the 
systems of control and information create for the develop-
ers an  understanding what kind of equipment and systems 
will be in demand and what should be their characteristics, 
including cost. One of the key conditions is that equip-
ment installed at the facilities must have the functionality 
corresponding to new working conditions of the power 
grid, and the cost of it should not only exceed but also be 
cheaper than the existing equivalents. Of course, the pow-
er grid is being equipped with many new items: a modern 
accounting system, automation and information systems, 
cybersecurity etc. These systems require additional capital 
costs (estimated), which should not exceed the amount of 
savings of needed investments to the power part of the 

If we talk about the readiness of the power system, both 

at the level of the UNPG and at the level of the distribution 
networks, the assessment expressed in your question is not 
quite accurate. UNPG objects are prepared for implement-
ing IPS AAS not so much physically, but ideologically, 
in view of the fact that the Federal grid company was the 


 rst to create the ideology for the new energy system. Its 

practical realization at such major and capital-intensive 
projects, such as the substations and transmission lines 
in the UNPG, really requires major capital investments. 
But even the availability of funds does not determine eve-
rything. For example, even the design process requires a 
lot of regulations to be revised, as well as quali


 ed staff 

of designers and builders who is ready to implement new 
solutions. However, objects that allow to talk about the 

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 rst real steps towards the creation of IPS AAS at UNPG 

level have already begun to appear. 500 kV Beskudnikovo 
substation equipped with the innovative asynchronous 
compensators, allowing a wide range of reactive power 
regulation of the leading to reduction of losses, improving 
the reliability of the power system (stability during severe 
disturbances) and the maintenance of power quality indi-
cators may serve as an example.

In distribution networks creation of IPS AAS is clos-

er to existing foreign counterparts — the Smart Grid — 
many of its elements are already available on the market. 
In addition, individual objects of distribution networks, of 
course, are not in any degree comparable with the UNPG 
capital-output ratio. But here comes the scaling factor, 
when signi


 cant ef


 ciency can be achieved at mass ap-

plication of new solutions, which in turn requires consid-
erable expenses. In this case, it is very important to select 
objects for pilot projects to demonstrate the effectiveness 
of the decisions taken. For the distribution networks such 
objects can be areas of electrical networks, for example, 
in large cities, where new large-scale construction and 
energy-saving solution are implemented. In these cir-
cumstances it is necessary to interact with the urban and 
municipal authorities for the approval of the new energy 
regulatory framework.

I would like to point out that only the systems approach 

for choosing the sequence of steps at implementing deci-
sions on creation of IPS AAS can have a signi


 cant impact 

on both economic and socio-political spheres, when broad 
mass of users of such a system become aware that there is 
no other way. That is why the choice of pilot projects and 
their launch should be approached very carefully. Crea-
tion of a uni


 ed network infrastructure Russian Grids al-

lows to 


 nd objects for pilot projects that comprehensively 

implement the whole chain of relations: generation (net-
work connections), bulk networks (UNPG), distribution 
networks (distribution zone) and electricity consumers. 


 rst such a large-scale pilot project on implementa-

tion of IPS AAS was conceived within East Uni


 ed Power 

System. This zone was chosen due to its relatively small 
(relative to other UPS) size and the diversity of primary, 
including unconventional power sources. Today, the work 
is aimed at its implementation.

For testing and simulation of new technological solu-

tions, primarily control systems based on new principles 
(multiagent systems) R&D Center at FGS UES creates an 
IPS AAS network control center test area.

Basic solutions and technologies proved-out, it is 

planned to transfer them to the East UPS pilot sites with 
subsequent replication at other sites and interconnection 
in the uni


 ed system.

In general, the whole work package will be completed 

by 2020. Its trial operation should con


 rm the effective-

ness of decisions, and then, from about 2022, it will be 
possible to speak about the mass replication of solutions 
and in the period 2025—2030 the Russian energy system 
as a whole should get a new quality. By the way, their 

foreign counterparts in the full version are scheduled to be 
completed in about the same period.

— Foundation for implementation of "smart grid" 

ideology needs to be built now. Taking into account rel-
evant promising solutions, not only network equipment 
should be developed, but process of training should be 
organized. In what way is work with employees of net-
working companies, equipment manufacturers, educa-
tional institutions organized?

— Today, in my opinion, JSC UES FGC is one of the 

few companies in the Russian energy sector to pay seri-
ous attention to the training of personnel in general and 
for new energy in particular. The company has signed co-
operation agreements with leading universities in Russia 
engaged in training on practically all aspects of the in-
dustry “Electric energy”. These programs do not include 
only organization of training for young specialists at the 
undergraduate and graduate levels, but also competence 
gap closure for key personnel of the company. The com-
petition called “Energoproryv” (“Breakthrough to the fu-
ture”) aiming at the search for promising ideas, projects 
and teams of young professionals and academics has just 
completed. The competition attracted more than 60 teams 
from various cities of Russia who presented their projects. 
As a member of the competition committee I can note the 
high interest in the theme of the contest. Many projects 
and ideas were aimed at the realization of smart control 
systems and creation of equipment for intellectual energy. 
Especially interesting was the project of an educational 
nature, presented by the team of Yekaterinburg and aimed 
at education of future energy specialists from schooldays, 
and cultivating energy saving basics from childhood. 

On June 20 in St. Petersburg at the St. Petersburg In-

ternational Economic Forum (SPIEF 2013) awarding cer-
emony for the winners of the National Youth Competition 
“Energoproryv” for high-tech innovation and develop-
ment projects was held. 

Thank you very much for the interview! We will watch 

with interest the further development of active-adaptive 
grid philosophy construction.

Interviewed by Ekaterina GUSEVA

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Head of the laboratory «Intelligent Energy» JIHT RAS, Deputy Chairman of the Architectural Committee for creation of smart grid at joint scientific and technical council of JSC UES FGC and Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir DOROFEEV tells about features of smart energy-architecture system with active-adaptive network and necessary conditions for its implementation.


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